Portrayal of Women in Media and Literature
Autobiographies, Boigraphies and Memoirs: Prestine Waves
Dynamics of Diasporic Identity in Commonwealth Literature
|Pages xxi + 327, ISBN 978-81-7273-726-9|
Worldwide Circulation through Authorspress Global Network
First Published in 2013 by, Authorspress, New Delhi-110 016
Diaspora studies, through years, have depicted an organic development maturing over years of cultural segregation to ultimate acculturation in the wake of globalisation. In its phase of inception, diasporic studies depicted certain general features: dispersal from original “centre” to the periphery of the foreign land; sense of alienation, retainment of community memory, a painful “rebirth” in an antagonistic society and hence the yearning to return back “home”. These varied and yet generalised concept have been highlighted in Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return where William Safran speaks of the nostalgic yearning of the early immigrants and how “their ethnocommunical conciousness and solidarity are importantly defined by the existence of such a relationship” (84). However, such feelings of nostalgia were found only in the early immigrants but their children or the second generation immigrants are free of such “looking back” emotions. Fredrick Buell in his book National Culture and the New Global System calls these immigrants “Global Cosmopolitans” who have established a new identity in the foreign nation.
The etymological origin of Diaspora can be traced to ancient Greek where it meant scattering as a result of migration or geographical upheaval and was related to the dispersal of the Jews. In the post-biblical phase, the term came to be related to human scattering because of slave trading and transfer of labourers. Diasporic communities grew up in distant lands of Jamaica, Trinidad, West Indies, United States, Australia etc. and there they created a space for themselves where they could preserve their individual identities and their racial origin. Obviously, this endeavour to preserve identity in a distant land was far from easy and it resulted in concepts like self, cultural memory, rootlessness, linearity and continuity, alienation and belonging.
Though no country has really been able to escape the effects of migration or dislocation, yet in the post colonial scenario the questions and issues are being re-evaluated. One wonders whether dislocation has to be really traumatic and if the new entrant can not rally get assimilated with the new culture. History and memory are two separators but in the global scenario all concepts require to be re-visited. Multiculturalism is an attempted reality and it works at multiple levels. The word is in vogue and this has imparted different connotations to it and which is a definite reason for caution. It must be remembered that it is not a mere coexistence of multiple cultures or ethnicities – rather it works towards a separation which is essential for maintaining “difference” and working towards individual recognition. Its popularity is not in “coercive assimilation” but rather in the resonance of the term “culture” and a positive connotation.
Two other important terms which have come to be associated with the search for diasporic identity are “hybridity” and “third space”. Robert Young points out that the term “hybrid(ity)” was first used with respect to humans in 1813 and it implied “the crossing of people of different races” (6). Bhabha, later in the location of culture uses the term in a less palpable context of “mutual contamination of imaginary purity” and it led to the concept of the “third space” of the colonizer and the colonized that effects the hybridization of both parties. It is this “third space” which has become an important zone of interaction between the diasporic community and the original master class. This spatial turn has resulted in the intermingling of cultures, what Bhabha calls, “hibridity”, thereby producing “thirding as othering”. It causes “in-between-ness” which has been supported also by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Edward Said. Bhabha challenges the hegemonic historiography in “The Third Space” and writes:
All forms of culture are continually in a process of hybridity. But for me the importance of hybridity is not to be able to trace two original moments from which the third emerges, rather hybridity to me is the ‘third space’ which enables other positions to emerge. This third space displaces the histories that constitute it, and sets up new structures of authority, new political initiatives, which are inadequately understood through received wisdom...the process of cultural hybridity gives rise to something different, something new and unrecognisable, a new area of negotiation of meaning and representation (Bhabha 211).
The present volume discusses these varied aspects of diasporic identity in varied avtars. The editors of the present critical anthology have taken an all-inclusive approach on diasporic identity in Commonwealth Literature. Their principal insistence is on acquainting teachers, researchers, and post- and undergraduate students with different dynamics of diasporic identity in Commonwealth Literature.
Emerging Issues in ELT
Role of ICT in English Language Teaching and Learning
English is a West Germanic language linked to Dutch, Frisian and German with a significant amount of terminology from French, Latin, Greek and few others. Historically, English language had so modest foundation that at first it would hardly worth the honor of being the literature language of even a renowned Englishman. Shakespeare wrote for a speech community of about six million peoples, that it was not thought to be of much account by the rest of Europe, and that it was entirely unknown to the rest of the world. John Locke, the celebrated English philosopher once said that ‘English was the language of the illiterate vulgar’. But today the situation has been exclusively changed and the English language dominated over almost all rest languages. Today, English is truly an official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is the mostly preferable medium of international communication. We see wide-ranging use of English in the field of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism all over the world.
English, today, has the widest circulation, spoken and used as official language by men and women round the world, especially in the countries which were British colonies. The earlier teaching of English was characterized largely by a type of instruction which is a type of a lecture method in teaching language or literature. But, presently, universalisation of education technology is a matter of great prosperity for the teaching dogma. Particularly Information Technology achieves a wide possible reach for the students. We see a sea change in the teaching of English language in the schools and colleges by the introduction of ICT equipments. The use of ICT can succeed in achieving language proficiency and will fosters an all-round development of the mind of students.
The present anthology Role of ICT in English Language Teaching and Learning: Observations and Ruminations is our humble attempt to bring different scholarly views, opinions and investigations under one umbrella in form of this book. We requested many scholars of India and aboard to ruminate and write on this topic and we are overwhelmed by their response.
The overall aim of this anthology is to highlight difference facets of the application of ICT in teaching English language and investigate and explore various experimentation and innovation in this area in order to find out the goals of ICT enabled teaching for creating environmental consciousness and related behavioural practices among students and we are sure that we succeed in bringing together all angled deliberations, observations and ruminations on role of ICT in English Language teaching and learning. Nevertheless, this compilation of critical essays is expected to be referred to by teachers and students alike who want to further their studies and activism regarding ICT enabled English Language Teaching and Learning. We are thrilled and honoured in editing this volume to the vast local and global readership.
Twentieth Century British Literature
Twentieth Century British Literature
Twentieth century British literature marks the advent of new ways of looking at the world with comprehending, interacting and reconstructing literary sensibility. Modernistic point of view along with elements like experimentation and individualism were introduced in it. Focus on pluralism, quest for the self, lack of faith, fragmentation, alienation and much more found its reconstructed ways into its gamut.
It is also called as modern literature and is reflective of the political upheavals, social unrest, and domestic crisis in addition to racial discrimination, political protests, the Gay Rights movement, the Feminist movement and so on. Significant contribution has been made in the field of novel, drama and poetry. A lot of scope is given to man’s psychological problems and the concept of consciousness in relation to time. The approach that the modern literature adopts is realistic as opposed to the idealistic. Almost everything from within the human nature is embraced within its vast confines. There is also a faithful rendering of the modern society devoid of common values and virtues, and gripped by elements of disappointment, dejection, depression, disillusionment, disease and death. The writers of this period revolted against the existing order and reacted against existing pretentions. They opted for a more intense, more democratic and pluralistic mode of expression.
This anthology contains such approaches and critical investigation of renowned Twentieth century British literary texts through multiple aspects.
We are sure that these scholarly articles will definitely provide a deeper insight and help readers and researchers voyage into the realms of the 20th century British literature with its different facets. Research scholars who wish to undertake research in the same can truly be benefited.